Sustainable transport is needed to reduce the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, just as much as a shift to renewable electricity and heat production. Today, over a third (39%) of current energy use comes from the transport sector, mainly road transport (89%) but also from domestic aviation (7%) and shipping (2%). However the most efficient form of transport, railways, currently only has a market share of 1.4%.This chapter provides an overview of the selected measures required to develop a more energy efficient and sustainable transport system in the future, with a focus on:
- reducing transport demand,
- shifting transport modes (from high to low energy intensity), and
- energy efficiency improvements through technology development.
This section provides the assumptions for the New Zealand’s transport sector energy demand calculations used in the Reference and the Energy [R]evolution scenarios including projections for the passenger vehicle market (light duty vehicles). Overall, some technologies will have to be adapted for greater energy efficiency. In other situations, a simple modification will not be enough. The transport of people in cities and urban areas will have to be almost entirely re-organized and individual transport must be complemented or even substituted by public transport systems. Car sharing and public transport on demand are only the beginning of the transition needed for a system that carries more people more quickly and conveniently to their destination while using less energy. The Energy [R]evolution scenario is based on an analysis by the German DLR Institute of Vehicle Concepts of the entire global transport sector, broken down to the ten IEA regions. This report outlines the key findings of the analysis’ calculations for New Zealand.
The definitions of the transport modes for the scenarios are:
- Light-duty vehicles (LDV) are four-wheel vehicles used primarily for personal passenger road travel. These are typically cars, sports utility vehicles (SUVs), small passenger vans (up to eight seats) and personal pickup trucks. Light-duty vehicles are also simply called ‘cars’ within this chapter.
- Medium-duty vehicles (MDV) include medium-haul trucks and delivery vehicles.
- Heavy-duty vehicles (HDV) are long-haul trucks operating almost exclusively on diesel fuel. These trucks carry large loads with lower energy intensity (energy use per tonne-kilometre of haulage) than medium-duty trucks.
- Aviation in each region denotes domestic air travel (intraregional and international air travel is provided as one figure).
- Inland navigation denotes freight shipping with vessels operating on rivers or in coastal areas for domestic transport purposes.
8.1 technical and behavioural measures to reduce transport energy consumption
The following section describes how the transport modes contribute to total and relative energy demand. Then, a selection of measures for reducing total and specific energy transport consumption are put forward for each mode.
The three ways to decrease energy demand in the transport sector examined are:
- reduction of transport demand of high-energy intensity modes
- modal shift from high-energy intensive transport to low-energy intensity modes
- energy efficiency improvements.